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The use of oil paints in Europe began in the 15th century. Prior to this, the most common remedy was egg tempera, which did not have the plasticity of dyes based on drying oils. In addition, oil paints were easily mixed, they could work for a long time, giving the visual surface a different character, and their transparency meant a much wider range of tones. All this allowed oil paints to become the leading artistic tool from the 15th century onwards to the present day.


The transition from egg tempera to oil paints in Northern Europe, and then, by the end of the 15th century, and in Italy was marked by many works in which the underpainting was performed with tempera, and the subsequent stages, in which the main technique was thin transparent glazing, . Many pictures have come down to us in which tempera and oil paints were applied simultaneously. Although Dutch artists, the Van Eyck brothers, were universally credited with the invention of oil painting at the beginning of the 15th century (Jan Van Eyck, 1390-1441, greatly succeeded in the development of this artistic tool), however there is strong documentary evidence that oil-resin varnishes and drying oils used in the 8th century.

The development of oil painting was not generally evolutionary in nature, that is, it was not a gradual transition from tempera binder to oil, as some authors [227; 14, v. 5, p. 509] 133, and, of course, it was not a coup accomplished at the beginning of the 15th century by Jan Eyck, to whom legend has attributed the invention of technology. Drying vegetable oil was used in painting in antiquity. Pliny repeatedly mentions linseed oil: either as a topcoat, or as a material used directly for the preparation of the binder; he speaks of a Punic wax “dissolved with oil” and used in painting walls. A reference to the use of oil also contains an essay by the Greek physician Aetius (5th-6th centuries).

This film prevents the access of oxygen to the underlying layers of oil, as a result of which the drying process slows down noticeably. After some time, microscopic holes form in the film (due to evaporation of the volatile components of the oil), due to which oxygen enters the layer, causing polymerization. At the same time, the process of reducing the oil in the volume begins, accompanied by the wrinkling of the surface film, and in the process of further polymerization, voids are formed in the layer. While we consider the process in isolation from the basis used, i.e. we consider it ideally non-absorbent. However, the strength of the adhesion of the paint layer to the substrate is due to the absorption of oil into the underlying surface.
It is advisable to use in the work of the brush of two types: synthetic and bristle. Synthetics can be soft and hard; a soft column is preferable due to a longer service life. Flat synthetic useful in all sizes from the smallest to the largest. Round synthetics are mainly used in small sizes, it is good, for example, when modeling the body, when soft transitions with no traces of brush are needed. The same can be said about bristle brushes. The bristles are good for work “in vain” and “on dry”, for corpus letters and many more for what. A fan brush can also be useful. It is mainly used for smoothing the paint layer and combining, but you can also write it if you wish.